It’s the fourth quarter, and that means it’s that time again for investors, executives and entrepreneurs to start making year-end financial planning decisions. These decisions come at the busiest possible time — work, holiday, and family commitments, but it’s important to plan now to ensure your choices make the most of all the updated tax law changes and help protect and maximize your wealth.
Here are tips to help you speak with your SVB Private Bank Relationship Manager and tax advisor to make sure you are optimizing your tax situation, while maximizing your wealth and earnings.
1. Time to exercise? Higher AMT exemptions make ISOs and NSOs more attractive than everAs year-end approaches determine if it’s time to exercise Incentive Stock Option (ISO) that you may hold. Exercising an ISO is treated as income solely for the purpose of calculating alternate minimum tax (AMT) but is ignored for the purpose of calculating the regular federal income tax. The spread between the fair market value of the stock and the option’s strike price is included as income for AMT purposes. The 2017 Tax Cuts and Job Act tax law changes increased the AMT exemption by 30 percent, meaning you may be able to exercise more stock options before triggering AMT. This is perhaps the most crucial year-end planning consideration, because unintended AMT triggers can occur when ISOs and NSOs are exercised without a comprehensive check for the tax consequences. Here’s a table comparing the 2019 AMT exemptions to 2018 levels:
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) Exemption Amounts
|Married taxpayers filing jointly||$109,400||$111,700|
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) Threshold Amounts
|Married taxpayers filing jointly||$1,000,000||$1,020,600|
Check with your CPA to determine whether you have an opportunity to exercise Incentive Stock Options without incurring additional tax liability under AMT in 2019. If you are anxious to get the clock ticking for long-term capital gains treatment, regardless of the tax liability, you may consider exercising ISOs early next year (2020), since the AMT may not be due until April of the following year.
2. Determine whether your investments qualify for QSBS treatment.Check with your SVB Relationship Manager and CPA to see if the Qualified Small Business Stock (QSBS - §1202 IRC) exclusion could apply to you. There are strict rules around qualifying for the exemption. When a stock qualifies, there is an exclusion of up to $10 million (or 10 times original basis, whichever is greater) of capital gains, including an exclusion from the AMT and the NII tax. It’s an opportunity worth investigating, as the year draws to a close. Read SVB’s article about QSBS for more details.
3. Tax Loss HarvestingYear-end is an ideal time to consider capital gains impacts. When selling a position, investors may realize a capital loss and potentially write off up to $3,000 of collective losses against ordinary income — the rest can be used against any 2019 realized capital gains. Any unused capital losses can be carried forward into future years indefinitely, providing a valuable tax-management tool. Be familiar with the wash sale rule, which may disallow the loss if you re-purchase the same or a substantially equal security 30 days before or after the sale date.
In addition, Section 1244 losses may be useful if you invested in an early-stage private company and the business had to close-down. Those losses are treated as ordinary losses rather than capital losses on your tax return and could result in a greater tax benefit.
4. Maximize your charitable giving deductionsCharitable giving is usually near the top of every deduction list, because it’s a great way to give back to the community while benefiting from a tax break. Many of our clients have used charitable deductions to offset income from a liquidity event. The standard deductions have almost doubled from 2017 for the two main filing categories making it tougher for many taxpayers to itemized deductions. If you don’t have enough to itemize your deductions, you’ll end up taking the standard deduction eliminating your ability to reap the tax benefits of those charitable deductions.
2019 Standard Deduction Thresholds
|Married filing jointly (MFJ)||$24,000||$24,400|
|Elderly (over 65) or blind single||Additional $1,550||Additional $1,650|
|Elderly (both over age 65 and MFJ)||Additional $2,500||Additional $2,600|
Consider “bunching” using a donor advised fund (DAF) to avoid the higher standard deduction
While the new standard deduction almost doubled from 2017, it is still possible for itemized deductions to exceed the standard deduction threshold. One way to exceed the threshold is to “bunch” prospective multiple year donations into a single year in combination with a donor advised fund (DAF). Using a DAF allows you to receive the deduction in the year of the donation but stretch grants to charities out of the DAF over multiple years.
Here's how it works:
Instead of making your normal charitable donation of $6,500 each year, you “bunch” two donations into a single year and make one $13,000 charitable donation in 2019 to a donor- advised fund (“DAF”) thereby exceeding the $12,000 standard deduction threshold. With a DAF you can still recommend grants to charity over a number of years. This also provides a deduction against current year income in years where income may spike due to a liquidity event.
For more details about donor advised funds, read our article about how DAFs can help maximize your charitable giving.
Give appreciated securities directly to charitable organizations:
Another way our clients donate is by using highly appreciated assets (securities) which in most cases is more effective than making a cash donation. It allows you to contribute more value to the charity than if you sold the shares, paid the applicable capital gains taxes and then donated the remaining cash. When contributing to a DAF, it is very important to gift stock with long term gains. Gifting appreciated securities with short term capital gains would provide you with a charitable deduction equal to the cost basis of the gift, not the fair market value.
Here’s an example to demonstrate why donating appreciated investments may be a good option for you. Let’s assume that you’re in the 37% federal tax bracket and want to donate $100,000 worth of stock with a cost basis of $10,000. In this example, you see that donating the stock results in no capital gains tax being paid and a larger itemized deduction.
|Option 1: Sell stock and donate the cash net proceeds to charity||Option 2: Donate stock directly to the charity|
|Current fair market value of stock||$100,000 (1000 x $100 per share)||$100,000 (1000 x $100 per share)|
|Long-term capital gains tax paid1||$18,000||$0|
|Amount donated to charity||$82,000||$100,000|
|Personal Income tax savings2||$30,340||$37,000|
|(37% x amount donated to charity)|
For non-cash charitable contributions over $250, you'll need a receipt that includes a description of the item and other details. Donations for the current tax year must be made by December 31. If you use a credit card before the end of the year, it will count for this year, even though you might not pay the credit card bill until 2019.
5. Increased Gift, Estate and Generation-skipping transfer exemptionsThe federal gift, estate and generation-skipping transfer (GST) lifetime tax exemptions for 2019 have increased to $11,400,000 for individuals and to $22,800,000 for married couples. It’s important to note that the exemption increases will also adjust for inflation each year until 2025, at which time they will sunset and revert to 2017 levels (adjusted for inflation). While these increases are temporary, they are substantial. You might consider gifts to children, grandchildren or other beneficiaries that fall within these limits, or to plan for them to take place over the next several years. It also makes sense to review your wills and trusts, to ensure that trust funding amounts are not tied to these higher exemption amounts. This could avoid an overfunding of your trust upon passing.
The annual gift tax exemption for 2019 is $15,000 per person. This means a married couple could give up to $30,000 in annual gifts to an unlimited number of recipients — including minors in the form of a Uniform Gift to Minors Act (UTMA). And of course, you may be able to make unlimited gifts for amounts paid on behalf of someone else, directly to educational institutions for tuition and medical providers for health care. Check with your tax advisor for help with your specific situation.
Contributions to a 529 college savings plan would also fall into the annual gifting category and can be front-loaded for up to five years of the annual gift tax exclusion amount ($75,000 for individuals, $150,000 for couples in 2019) without a gift tax consequence.
6. Maximize retirement plan contributions, for continued tax benefitYear-end financial decisions should always include a review of retirement plan contributions. For 2019, 401(k), 403(b), and 457 retirement plan contribution limits have all increased modestly. IRA and Roth contribution limits will increase to $6,000 from $5,500 in 2019. Many investors and early stage entrepreneurs use self-employed retirement plans as an excellent opportunity to defer income tax liability. The two most popular plans, the self-employed 401(k) plan and the SEP IRA, allow for up to $56,000 of pre-tax contributions in 2019, plus a $6,000 catch-up amount (for 401(k) plans only). The deadline to establish a self-employed 401(k) is December 31st, although the plan does not have to be funded until your tax-filing deadline plus extensions. There are also other types of retirement savings options, such as defined benefit and cash balance type plans that allow for significantly higher pre-tax contributions.
Here’s a recap of all 2019 retirement plans contribution limits:
|Effective deferrals 401(k), 457, and SARSEPs
|Defined contribution (§415(c)(1)(A))
Defined benefit (§415(b)(1)(A))
SIMPLE catch-up contribution
|Maximum includible compensation
Highly compensated employee
Lookback to 2017
Lookback to 2018
Key employee (top-heavy plan)
SEP participation limit
|IRA or Roth IRA contribution limit
IRA or Roth IRA catch-up
|IRA deduction phaseout for active participants
Married filing jointly
Married filing separately
Non-active participant married to active participant
$64,000 - $74,000
$103,000 - $123,000
$193,000 - $203,000
|Roth IRA phaseout
Married filing jointly
$122,000 - $137,000
$193,000 - $203,000
7. Review Tax Withholding and Estimated Payments
Changes to the Federal tax brackets were limited to the annual inflation adjustments that happen every year, called cost-of-living adjustments or COLAs. Apart from that, expect the same basic structure as 2018, with the same seven tax rates applying to the various brackets. The actual income amounts of the brackets depend on your tax filing status.
3.8% Surtax on Net Investment Income (NII)
An additional 3.8% tax is imposed on interest, dividends, capital gains, rental and royalty income, non-qualified annuities, income from businesses involved in trading of financial instruments or commodities and businesses that are passive activities to the taxpayer whose modified AGI exceeds the following thresholds:
|Filing Status||Threshold (modified AGI)|
|Married filing jointly||$250,000|
|Married filing separately||$125,000|
|Single or Head of Household||$200,000|
SVB Private Bank is here to help.
Although crucial financial decisions for the tax year always come at a time when you’re already busy, it’s critical to take steps now to make sure 2019 is a pivotal year for your long-term financial health. With all the tax law changes, it’s important to know what steps to take now, so you’re ready for 2019 and beyond.
As always, SVB Private Bank is here to help you plan for year-end alongside your tax advisor and legal team.
The Fine Print
1. Assumes a cost basis of $10,000, that the investment has been held for more than a year, and that all realized gains are subject to a 20% long- term capital gains tax rate. This analysis does not take into account any state or local taxes or the Medicare surtax of 3.8%
2. Assumes donor is in a 37% federal income tax bracket and does not take into account any state or local taxes. Certain federal income tax deductions, including the charitable contribution, are only available to taxpayers who itemize deductions. In addition, deductions for charitable contributions may be limited based on the type of property donated, the type of charity and the donor’s AGI. For example, deductions for contributions of appreciated property to public charities generally are limited to 30% of the donor’s AGI. Excess contributions may be carried forward for up to 5 years.